Radio systems capable of localization have emerging applications in homeland security, law enforcement, emergency response, defense command and control, multi-robot coordination and vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-pedestrian collision avoidance. In fact, high resolution localization is vital for many applications, including: traffic alert, emergency services, e.g., indoor localization for firefighters, and battlefield command and control. These systems promise to dramatically reduce society's vulnerabilities to catastrophic events and improve its quality of of life. While work this important area is progressing, limited resources are available to support graduate students and researchers in this important area. Specifically, a limited number of books has been published in this area covering selected subjects. This comprehensive handbook offers gaps of available localization books presenting in-depth coverage from fundamentals of coordinates to advanced application examples.